1 Nephi

  1. 1 Nephi

    1. Frederick Axelgard. “1 and 2 Nephi: An Inspiring Whole.” BYUS 26:4 ():53-66.
    2. Noel Reynolds. “Nephi’s Outline.” BOMA, 53-73. Also in BYUS 20:2 ():131-150.
    3. Rulon D. Eames. “First Book of Nephi.” EM, ??.

    1 Nephi 1-7 Daniel Peterson. “1 Nephi 1-7.” FARMS Transcript.1 Nephi 1:1

    1. Nephi’s name.
      • John Gee “A Note on the Name Nephi.” JBMS 1:1, 1991.
      • Paul Hoskisson. “What’s in a Name? Nephi.” JBMS 9:2. p. 64-65. Missing from FARMS’ site.
      • Matthew Brown. “Internal Textual Evidence for the Egyptian Origin of Nephi’s Name.” Insights 22:11.
      • Cf. “Four Suggestions on the Origin of the Name Nephi.” in Pressing Forward with the Book of Mormon, ed. John W. Welch and Melvin J. Thorne (Provo, Utah: FARMS, 1999), 1-5.
    2. Nephi’s goodly parents.
      • Nephi’s “goodly parents” – Probably doesn’t mean ” good” but ” well-off.” From Marc Schindler’s site.
      • Also, see my brief defense of this idea under Comment #1 here.
    3. Syntax and long “broken” sentences.
      • Brian Stubbs. “A Lengthier Treatment of Length.JBMS 5:2 (1996):82-97. “Book of Mormon language frequently contains lengthy structures of rather awkward English. Some may consider these to be instances of poor grammar, weakness in writing (Ether 12:23-26), or the literary ineptness of a fraudulent author; however, I see them as potentially significant support for a translation from a Near Eastern language in an ancient American setting. Many of these lengths of awkward English parallel Semitic (and Egyptian) patterns, particularly the circumstantial or hal-clause. In response to critics of my previous proposal to that effect, this article is a lengthier treatment of these lengthy structures found in the Book of Mormon.”
      • Brian Stubbs. “A Short Addition to Length: Some Relative Frequencies of Circumstantial Structures.” JBMS 6:1 (1997):39-46. Follow-up article.
      • Cf. Larry G. Childs. “Present Participle Adjuncts in the Book of Mormon.” JBMS 6:1 (1997): 24-38.
    4. “The Learning of My Father.” TLBMM, 25-29.

    1 Nephi 1:2-“language of my father, which consists of the learning of the Jews and the Language of the Egyptians”

    1. Ricks, Tvedtnes, others say Hebrew. “Since the Book of Mormon is largely the record of a Hebrew people, is the writing characteristic of the Hebrew language?” Ensign, Oct. 1986, 64.
    2. John A. Tvedtnes, “Hebraisms in the Book of Mormon: A Preliminary Survey.” BYUS 11:1 ():50-60.
    3. Hugh Nibley. Lehi in the Desert, p 12. Argues for Egyptian, not Hebrew.
    4. “Book of Mormon- Language” EM, 179-181 for a summary.
    5. Ben McGuire. ” Did Lehi Use Egyptian?” FAIR paper. A minor criticism of the Book of Mormon is that no believing Jew, circa 600 B.C., would have used Egyptian to write anything–let alone a spiritual record! This FAIR Paper presents the facts–biblical and secular– concerning Egyptian use in the seventh century B.C.
    6. Cf. John S. Thompson, “Lehi and Egypt” GLJ, 259-276 and  Aaron Schade “The Kingdom of Judah: Politics, Prophets, and Scribes in the Late Pre-exilic Period.” GLJ, 299-336. Background on Israelite and Egyptian culture and why Lehi would have known it.
    7. Cf. Mormon 9:32

    1 Nephi 1:4

    1. Background.
      • John W. Welch. “They Came from Jerusalem: Some Old World Perspectives on the Book of Mormon.” Ensign, Sept. 1976, 27-31.
      • Keith Meservy. “Jerusalem at the Time of Lehi and Jeremiah.” Ensign, Jan. 1988, 23-25.
      • For a longer treatment, see Jerusalem, the Eternal City, “Events leading to the Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC.” p. 94-111.
      • Robert F. Smith’s “Book of Mormon Event Structure: The Ancient Near East.” JBMS 5:2 (Fall 1996), ?? is a technical bibliographical article with many references that sets the Book of Mormon into its Near Eastern timeframe..pdf format here.
      • John W. Welch and Robert D. Hunt. “Culturegram: Jerusalem 600 B.C.” GLJ, 1-40.
      • David Rolph Seely and Robert D. Hunt. “Dramatis Personae: The World of Lehi (ca. 700-562 B.C.)” GLJ, 41-64.
      • Cf. 1 Nephi 7:14
    2. Lehi and Sariah
    3. “…there came many prophets”
      • “Mediators and Messengers: The Role of a Prophet” TLBMM, 30-35.
      • Prophets contemporary with Lehi include Jeremiah, Uriah (Jer. 26:20-24), Ezekiel apparently begins his ministry after being hauled to Babylon.

    1 Nephi 1:6

    1. Donald W. Parry “Why is the phrase ‘and it came to pass’ so prevalent in the Book of Mormon?” Ensign, Dec. 1992, 29.
    2. Cf. 1 Nephi 1:2

    1 Nephi 1:7

    1. Lehi’s calling as a prophet.
    2. Lehi’s house
      • Jeffrey R. Chadwick. “Lehi’s House at Jerusalem and the  Land of his Inheritance.” GLJ, 81-130.

    1 Nephi 1:16-17 S. Kent Brown. “Recovering the Missing Record of Lehi.” FJTZ, 28-54.

    1 Nephi 2:4 Jeffrey R. Chadwick. “Lehi’s House at Jerusalem and the  Land of his Inheritance.” GLJ, 81-130.

    1 Nephi 2:5

    1. Jeffrey Chadwick. “Sariah in the Elephantine Papyri.” JBMS 2:2, Fall 1993.
    2. Camille Williams. ” Women in the Book of Mormon.” JBMS 11:1, ??.
    3. Camille Fronk. ” Desert Epiphany: Sariah & the Women in 1 Nephi.” JBMS 9:2, ??.
    4. Ken Haubrock. “Sam: A Just and Holy Man.” JBMS 5:2, Fall 1996.
    5. John A. Tvedtnes et. al. “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions.” JBMS 9:1 p 42-51. The Hebrew is only available in the.pdf version. This article was criticized by Thomas Finley, an Evangelical Old Testament scholar. Tvedtnes et. al responded in FRB 15:1, ??.
    6. Alan K. Parrish. ” Laman.” EM, ??.

    1 Nephi 2:6-7 Sacrifice, authority and priesthood.

    1. Anon. “Authority to Sacrifice among the Nephites” JBMS 8:1, 1999. p. 71.
    2. Paul Hoskisson. “By what authority did Lehi, a non-Levite priest, offer sacrifices?” Ensign, March 1994, p.54.
    3. David R. Seely. “Lehi’s Altar and Sacrifice in the Wilderness.” JBMS 10:1, 2001.
    4. Cf. Mosiah 2:3 and 1 Nephi 5:9.

    1 Nephi 2:9-10.

    1. George D. Potter “A New Candidate in Arabia for the Valley of Lemuel.” JBMS 8:1, 1999. p 54-63.
    2. A river emptying into a fountain- Paul Hoskisson. “Textual evidence of the Book of Mormon.” FNDF p (around footnotes 29-33)

    1 Nephi 2:11

    1. John A. Tvedtnes. ” A Visionary Man.” JBMS 6:2, ??.
    2. “A Visionary Man.” TLBMM, 36-38.

    1 Nephi 2:13- Fred Woods. “Why didn’t Jews in Old Testament times believe Jerusalem could be destroyed?” Ensign, Dec. 1995, p. 52-53. Cf. Jeremiah 7 for his temple sermon in which he argues that the Jerusalemites can’t rely on the temple to save them from destruction.

    1 Nephi 3:3

    1. Hugh Nibley. An Approach to the Book of Mormon, p 120-126
    2. John L. Sorenson ” The ” Brass Plates’ and Biblical Scholarship.” Dialogue 10 (Autumn 1977): 31-39. Available without footnotes. Reprinted in NCAS, 25-39.
    3. IBOM, 430-31
    4. Kevin Christensen stuff.
    5. Sidney B. Sperry. ” Some problems of Interest Relating to the Brass Plates.” - JBMS 4:1, ??.

    1 Nephi 3:27 LaMar C. Berrett ” The So-called Lehi Cave” JBMS 8:1, ??.1 Nephi 3:29 “Rod as a Symbol of Power.” TLBMM, 43-44.

    1 Nephi 4:2 “Let Us be Strong.” TLBMM, 39-42.

    1 Nephi 4:6 See Acts 20:22, and Hebrews 11:8.

    1 Nephi 4:9

    1. Brett Holbrook. “The Sword of Laban as a Symbol of Divine Authority and Kingship.” JBMS 2:1, 1993, p. 39-72.
    2. Daniel Rolph. “Prophets, Kings, and Swords: The Sword of Laban and Its Possible Pre-Laban Origin.” JBMS 2:1. p. 73-79.
    3. Hugh Nibley. LDWJTJ, p. 107.
    4. William J. Hamblin and Brent Merril. “Swords in the Book of Mormon.” WBM, p.329-352.
    5. John A. Tvedtnes. ” The Workmanship Thereof was Exceedingly Fine.” JBMS 6:1, ??.
    6. William Hamblin. “Steel in the Book of Mormon.” Meridian Magazine.
    7. See Enos 1:20 for other weaponry.

    1 Nephi 4:10

    1. John W. Welch. “Legal Perspectives on the Slaying of Laban.” JBMS 1:1, Fall 1992.
    2. Alternately, Paul Hoskisson has suggested that Nephi was justified under the Israelite law of False Witness. According to Deuteronomy 19:16-19, if a witness accused someone of a crime, and the accusation was shown to be false and malicious, the punishment due the accused would be done to the accuser. In Nephi’s case, Laban accused him of being a “robber” and was going to kill him (1 Nephi 3:13), the punishment for being a robber (Cf. Welch, “Thieves and Robbers” REBOM p. 248)
    3. Hugh Nibley makes several interesting points regarding differences between Western and Eastern cultural standards in LDWJTJ, p. 87. Cf. The introduction to An Approach to the Book of Mormon, p. xii. Some Arabic students in his BOM class were shocked that Nephi waited so long to kill Laban. See also An Approach to the BOM, 112- 115 for Nibley’s ancient parallels that show that the slaying of Laban is completely at home in the ancient world.
    4. For a very simple approach (essentially “because God said so”), see Rodney Turner. “Why did the Lord command Nephi to slay Laban when to do so was contrary to the commandment ‘thou shalt not kill’?” Ensign, Feb. 1996, p. 62.

    1 Nephi 4:13

    1. John Welch. “Better that one man should perish.” Insights, June 1998. Requires some scrolling down.
    2. Cf. John W. Welch. “Legal Perspectives on the Slaying of Laban.” JBMS 1:1, Fall 1992.( or.pdf)
    3. CBOM, 115.
    4. John A. Tvedtnes. “A note on slaying of Laban.” SHIELDS.

    1 Nephi 4:19

    1. William J. Hamblin. “Armor in the Book of Mormon.” WBM, 400-425.
    2. AASBM p. 262.
    3. Cf. Enos 1:20 for other weaponry.

    1 Nephi 4:23. Anon. “‘Let Us Be Strong’: Nephi’s Courage in the Context of Ancient Near Eastern Military Exhortations.” Insights 22:9.
    1 Nephi 5:9

    1. S. Kent Brown. ” What were those sacrifices offered by Lehi?” FJTZ, p. 1– 8. Shorter version in Insights 21:9.
    2. Cf. 1 Nephi 2:6-7 and Mosiah 2:3.

    1 Nephi 5:10 – Noel B. Reynolds “The Brass Plates Version of Genesis.” BSABF II, p. 135-174.1 Nephi 5:13 David Rolph Seely and JoAnn H. Seely “Lehi and Jeremiah: Prophets, Priests and Patriarchs.” JBMS 8:2. 1999. p. 24-35 .

    1 Nephi 7:2

    1. Sidney B. Sperry. “Did Father Lehi Have Daughters Who Married the Sons of Ishmael?” JBMS 4:1, p.235-239.
    2. See 1 Nephi 7:6

    1 Nephi 7:6

    1. John L. Sorenson “The Composition of Lehi’s Family.” BSABF II, p. 174- 193. Reprinted with postscript in NCAS, 1-24.
    2. “Lehi’s Family Tree.” The New Era. A very brief article that includes discussion of Nephi’s sisters.

    1 Nephi 7:14

    1. S. Kent Brown and David Rolph Seely. “Jeremiah’s Imprisonment and the Date of Lehi’s Departure.” RE, 2:1, 2001. p.15-32.
    2. Cf. 1 Nephi 10:4 for articles on Book of Mormon chronology and dating.

    1 Nephi 8:2 Corbin T. Volluz. ” Lehi’s Dream of the Tree of Life: Springboard to Prophecy.” JBMS 2:2, ??.
    1 Nephi 8:19 John A. Tvedtnes. ” Rod and Sword as the Word of God.” JBMS 5:2, ??.

    1 Nephi 8:20

    1. Noel B. Reynolds. “Was the Path Nephi Saw ‘Strait and Narrow’ or ‘Straight and Narrow.’” JBMS 10:2:??.
    2. Paul Hoskisson, “Straightening Things Out: The Use of Strait and Straight in the Book of Mormon” JBMS 12:2 (2003) or.pdf format.

    1 Nephi 8:26, 33. “The Queen of Sheba, Skyscraper Architecture and Lehi’s Dream.” JBMS 11:1, 102-103. Based on Brown’s article in his New Book. Add reference.

    1 Nephi 8:27 “Merismus.” TLBMM, 45-48.

    1 Nephi 10:4

    1. AASBM, 270-76.
    2. John L. Sorenson. “Comments on Nephite Chronology” JBMS 2:2.
    3. Randall Spackman. “Introduction to Book of Mormon Chronology: The Principal Prophecies, Calendars, and Dates.” FARMS.
    4. “The Jewish/Nephite Calendar.” JBMS 7:1, 48-59.
    5. Jay Huber. “Lehi’s 600 Year Prophecy and the Birth of Christ.” FARMS.
    6. John P. Pratt. ” Book of Mormon Chronology.” EM, vol. 1, pp. 169-171.
    7. Cf. 1 Nephi 7:14.

    1 Nephi 10:14

    1. Noel Reynolds. “The Gospel of Jesus Christ as Taught by the Nephite Prophets” BYUS 31:3 (1991): 31-50. Shorter version found in REBOM 257-9.
    2. Cf. Jacob 7:6.

    1 Nephi 10:18. John Tvedtnes. “From the foundation of the world.” Insights 21:3.

    1 Nephi 11

    1. Daniel C. Peterson. “Nephi and His Asherah: A Note on 1 Nephi 11:8-23.” in JBMS 9:2. Longer version in MSAW p.191-244.
    2. Allen J. Christensen. “The Sacred Tree of the Ancient Maya.” JBMS 6:1.
    3. Wilfred Griggs. “The Book of Mormon as an ancient Book.” BYUS 22:3 ():259-279.

    For lengthy discussions of Izapa Stele 5, see

    1. Stewart Brewer. “The History of an Idea: The Scene on Stele 5 from Izapa Mexico as a Representation of Lehi’s Vision of the Tree of Life.” JBMS 8:1, p.12-21.
    2. John Clark. “A New Artistic Rendering of Izapa Stele 5: A Step towards Interpretation” JBMS 8:1, p. 22-33.
    3. V. Garth Norman. “What is the current status of research concerning the ‘Tree of Life’ carving from Chiapas, Mexico?, ” Ensign, June 1985, 54.

    1 Nephi 11-14 Andrew C. Skinner “The Foundational Doctrines of 1 Nephi 11-14.” RE 2:2, p. 139-155.1 Nephi 13-14

    1. Stephen Robinson, “Nephi’s ‘Great and Abominable Church’” JBMS 7:1, 1998. p.34-39. Longer version available as “Early Christianity and 1 Nephi 13-14″ FNDF, 177-192.
    2. Mike Ash, “Mormon Myths: The Great and Abominable Church.” From his website,  Mormon Fortress. Traces a traditional (but false, as shown by Robinson above) interpretation of the great and abominable church as the Roman Catholic church.

    1 Nephi 13:12

    1. Arnold K. Garr. Christopher Columbus: A Latter-day Saint Perspective (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1992) Few will have this book, so I recommend the review.
    2. Mark L. Grover, review of Arnold K. Garr, “Christopher Columbus: A Latter-day Saint PerspectiveBYUS 32:4 (1992):206-??.
    3. Jensen, De Lamar review of Oliver Dunn and James E. Kelley, Jr., trans., “The Diario of Christopher Columbus’s First Voyage to America, 1492-1493; and Delno C. West and August Kling, trans., The Libro de las Profecias of Christopher ColumbusBYUS 32:4 (1992):196-??.
    4. Contrast with AASBM 85. When  Lehi arrived, 7. Check these two.

    1 Nephi 13:26 “The Plain and Precious Parts.” REBOM 37-40.

    1 Nephi 14:27 Dean L. Marriott, “I Have a Question: Is the book of Revelation the remainder of the vision Nephi recorded in 1 Nephi?” Ensign, June 1987, 25-26.

    1 Nephi 15.

    1. S. Kent Brown, “New Light from Arabia on Lehi’s Trail.” EAEBM, 55-126.
    2. Eugene England. “Through the Arabian Desert to a Bountiful Land: Could Joseph Smith Have Known the Way?” BOMA, p. 144-154.
    3. Noel Reynolds. “Lehi’s Arabian Journey Updated.” BOMAR p.379-390.
    4. Lynn M. Hilton and Hope A. Hilton. “In Search of Lehi’s Trail, Part 1.” Ensign, September 1976 and ” In Search of Lehi’s Trail, Part 2.” Ensign, October 1976. An investigation of the location of the trail Lehi’s company used to travel across Arabia. While this research has been superceded by that of the Astons (below), it is still good reading.
    5. Warren P. Aston & Michaela Knoth Aston. IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF LEHI: New Evidence for Lehi’s Journey across Arabia to Bountiful (SLC: Deseret Book, 1994). Reviewed here.
    6. George Potter and Richard Wellington. Lehi in the Wilderness: 81 New Documented Evidences that the Book of Mormon is a True History. (Springville UT: Cedar Fort, 2003). Though its authors tend to be dogmatic, this is nevertheless a good treatment with some good insights and lots of color pictures. Reviewed here.
    7. Cf. 1 Nephi 17:4

    1 Nephi 15:20

    1. John A. Tvedtnes ” Isaiah Variants in the Book of Mormon.” In Isaiah and the Prophets, ed. Monte Nyman. (Provo, Utah: 1984), 165-77. FARMS reprint.
    2. Kevin Barney, “Isaiah Interwoven” FRB 15:1 (2003):353-402.

    1 Nephi 16:10 Robert L. Bunker “The Design of the Liahona and the Purpose of the Second Spindle.” JBMS 3:2.1 Nephi 16:23

    1. William J. Hamblin “The Bow and Arrow in the Book of Mormon.” WBM. p. 365-391.
    2. Appendix, “Why did Nephi make a New Arrow?” WBM 391-393.
    3. “Nephi’s Bow and Arrows.” REBOM 41-43.

    1 Nephi 16:34

    1. S. Kent Brown. “ ‘The Place that was Called Nahom’ : New Light from Ancient Yemen.” JBMS 8:1. p. 66-68.
    2. Alan Goff. “Mourning, Consolation, and Repentance at Nahom.” RDBOM, 92-100.
    3. Anon. ” Nahom and the ‘Eastward’ Turn ” JBMS 12:1, ??.
    4. Warren Aston. ” Newly Found Altars from Nahom.” JBMS 10:2, ?? (.pdf only).
    5. Cf. 1 Nephi 15

    1 Nephi 17-18.

    1. John L. Sorenson. “Transoceanic Crossings.” FNDF, 251-270. Reprinted with postscript in NCAS, 41-63.
    2. Stephen C. Jett. “Before Columbus: The Question of Early Transoceanic Interinfluences.” BYUS 33:2 (1993):245-272.

    1 Nephi 17:4

    1. S. Kent Brown. “A Case for Lehi’s Bondage in Arabia” JBMS 6:2, 205- 217.
    2. S. Kent Brown. “Sojourn, Dwell and Stay: Terms of Servitude” FJTZ, 55-59.

    1 Nephi 17:5

    1. Warren Aston. “The Arabian Bountiful Discovered? Evidence for Nephi’s Bountiful.” JBMS 7:1. p. 4-11.
    2. Paul Hoskisson with Brian Hauglid and John Gee. “What’s in a Name? Irreantum.” JBMS 11:1, 90-93. Available here in.pdf format.

    1 Nephi 17:41

    1. Wallace Hunt. “Moses’ Brazen Serpent as It Relates to Serpent Worship in Mesoamerica.” JBMS 2:2, ??. Also contains discussion of “fiery flying serpents.” Cf. Life in Biblical Israel p. 84
    2. Diane Wirth. “Quetzalcoatl, the Maya Maize God, and Jesus Christ.” JBMS 11:1, 4-15.
    3. Brant Gardner’s Quetzalcoatl papers.
    4. Andrew C. Skinner. “Serpent Symbols and Salvation in the Ancient Near East and the Book of Mormon.” JBMS 10:2, ??..pdf only.

    1 Nephi 18

    1. David L. Clark “Lehi and El Nino: A Method of Migration” BYUS 30:3 p.57-65.
    2. Add AASBM, Thor Heyerdahl.

    1 Nephi 18:2 “A New Beginning” TLBMM, 49-52.

    1 Nephi 18:23

    1. John L. Sorenson. “When Lehi’s Party Arrived in the Land, Did They Find Others There?” JBMS 1:1, 1992. Reprinted in NCAS, 65-104. Cf. 1 Nephi 20-21.
    2. Gardner, Brant. “The Other Stuff: Reading the Book of Mormon for Cultural Information.” Review of Nephite Culture and Society: Selected Papers by John L. Sorenson. FRB 13:2 (2001): 21-52.
    3. Matthew Roper. “Nephi’s Neighbors: Book of Mormon Peoples and Pre-Columbian Populations.” FRB 15:2 (2003) :91-128 .pdf format only. Requires current subscription.
    4. Brant Gardner. ” A Social History of the Early Nephites.” FAIR paper.
    5. “Did Lehi land in Chile?” REBOM, 57-61.
    6. Cf. William J. Hamblin. “Basic Methodological Problems with the Anti-Mormon Approach to the Geography and Archeology of the Book of Mormon.” JBMS 2:1, p. 193-95.

    1 Nephi 19:3 David E. Sloan. ” Nephi’s Convincing of Christ through Chiasmus: Plain and Precious Persuading from a Prophet of God.” JBMS 6:2, ??.1 Nephi 19:10 Three days of darkness. See 3 Nephi 8:23.

    1 Nephi 20-21

    1. S. Kent Brown. “What Is Isaiah Doing in First Nephi? Or, How did Lehi’s Family Fare so Far from Home?” FJTZ, 9-27.
    2. John Gee and Matthew Roper. “‘I Did Liken All Scriptures Unto Us’ -Early Nephite Understandings of Isaiah, and the Implications for ‘Others’ in the Land.” In The Fulness of the Gospel- Foundational Teachings from the Book of Mormon- The 32nd Annual Sidney B. Sperry Symposium (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2003):51-65. On “others,” see 1 Nephi 18:23

    1 Nephi 19-22 Andrew Skinner. “Nephi’s Lessons to his People: The Messiah, the Land, and Isaiah 48-49.” IBOM, 95-122.

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